Colonial animals: acquire available surface (stones, shells, algae) in the form of crusts and lumps; can be fan-shaped, tree-like or justiciablity.
- Adventitious avicularium. One occupying some position on the external wall of an autozooid (if. vicarious).
- Ancestrula. First-formed zooid of a colony, derived by metamorphosis of a free-swimming larva.
- Ascus. Sac-like hydrostatic organ in ascophoran Cheilostomata (syn. compensation sac, compensatrix).
- Autozooid. The feeding zooid of a bryozoan colony.
- Avicularium. Specialized cheilostome zooid with reduced polypide but strong muscles operating a mandiblelike operculum (see adventitious, interzooidal, vicarious).
- Basal. Under or reverse side of an encrusting or erect zooid or colony. Morphologically dorsal (if. proximal).
- Brown body. Colored spheroid seen in zooids, resulting from aggregation of non-histolyzable residue of a degenerated polypide.
- Cauda. Thread-like proximal portion of a club-shaped autozooid.
- Coelomopore. Pore in the body wall connecting the coelom with the exterior; specifically, the pore at the base of the tentacles through which eggs are shed (syn. supraneural pore).
- Condyles. A pair of oppositely placed processes on which the operculum pivots in the orifice of ascophoran cheilostomes.
- Cystid. Cellular plus skeletal layers of the zooid wall (if. polypide, zooecium).
- Distal. Pertaining to the side away from the ancestrula or origin of growth.
- Frontal. Pertaining to the exposed or orifice-bearing side of a zooid or colony. Morphologically ventral.
- Frontal wall. A calcareous frontal body wall (covering the ascus in some ascophoran cheilostomes).
- Funiculus. Mesenchymatous strands connecting the polypide with the zooidal wall (actually with the communication pores in the wall, in Cheilostomata and Ctenostomata).
- Gonozooid. Zooid modified as a brood chamber.
- Heterozooid. A specialised zooid, not an autozooid.
- Interzooidal avicularium. One which extends to the basal surface of the colony, but is wedged in between autozooids rather than replacing one of them in a normal series.
- Kenozooid. Heterozooid without a polypide, and usually without either orifice or muscles.
- Lophophore. The ring of hollow, ciliated tentacles surrounding the mouth of the zooid.
- Lyrula. Median tooth, often anvil-shaped, on the proximal side of the orifice in some Cheilostomata.
- Mandible. Articulated part of an avicularium, moved by muscles, and homologous with the operculum of an autozooid.
- Ooecium (pI. ooecia). Ovicell or brood chamber in Cheilostomata.
- Ooeciostome. In Cyclostomata, the opening of the gonozooid, through which larvae are released. Typically different in shape from the autozooid aperture, and usually characteristic for each species.
- Operculum. A generally uncalcified lamina, hinged or pivoting on condyles, which closes the zooidal orifice in
- Opesia. In anascan Cheilostomata, the opening below the frontal membrane which remains after formation of the cryptocyst.
- Orifice. Not the mouth, but the opening in the zooid body wall through which the lophophore is extended. In cheilostomes this may be surrounded by a peristome, the opening at the upper end of which is then called the secondary orifice.
- Ovicell. A globular brood chamber in Cheilostomata (syn. ooecium).
- Peristome. In Cheilostomata, a rim, often elevated or tubular, surrounding the primary orifice. In Ctenostomata used loosely to describe the cylindrical protuberance of the body wall on which the primary orifice is situated. In Cyclostomata, the distal tubular portion of the autozooid.
- Polypide. The organs and tissues of a zooid which undergo periodic replacement; viz., tentacles, tentacle sheath, gut, musculature and nerve ganglion.
- Proximal. Pertaining to the side toward the ancestrula or origin of growth.
- Pseudopore. Tissue filled lacuna in the calcification of the outer zooid wall in many Bryozoa.
- Quincuncial. Arrangement of five objects such that four are placed at the corners of a rectangle with the other in the center.
- Rostrum. (1) spike-like prolongation of an avicularium; (2) distal part of avicularium occupied by mandible.
- Sinus. Slit at proximal edge of orifice in some ascophoran Cheilostomata.
- Transverse parietal muscles. Short muscles inserted on the body wall of ctenostomes, the frontal membrane of anascans or the ascus of ascophorans, which contract to raise internal hydrostatic pressure.
- Vibraculum. In Cheilostomata, a heterozooid with an operculum modified as a long seta slung between condyles.
- Vicarious avicularium. One that replaces an autozooid in a senes.
- Zooid. Single unit of a bryozoan colony. Various types are distinguished by prefixes.
1. PhD Zakharov Denis V.
The project leader
Academic degree: PhD
5. PhD Strelkova (Anisimova) Natalya A.
Academic degree: PhD
- Kluge G.A. (1962) Bryozoa of the Northen seas of the USSR (In Russian);