Phylum Bryozoa

Colonial animals: acquire available surface (stones, shells, algae) in the form of crusts and lumps; can be fan-shaped, tree-like or justiciablity.

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Class Gymnolaemata

Key features are not set
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Class Stenolaemata

Key features are not set

Class Gymnolaemata

Key features are not set

Leieschara coarctataLeieschara coarctataEucratea loricataEucratea loricataAlcyonidium gelatinosumAlcyonidium gelatinosumTricellaria ternataTricellaria ternataPorella compressaPorella compressaMembranipora membranaceaMembranipora membranaceaElectra pilosaElectra pilosaEinhornia crustulentaEinhornia crustulentaTegella unicornisTegella unicornisFlustrellidra hispida Flustrellidra hispida Arachnidium clavatum Arachnidium clavatum Arachnoidella barentsia Arachnoidella barentsia Nolella dilatata Nolella dilatata Walkeria uva Walkeria uva Buskia nitens Buskia nitens Smittoidea reticulataSmittoidea reticulataSmittina landsborovii Smittina landsborovii Raymondcia majuscula Raymondcia majuscula Parasmittina trispinosa Parasmittina trispinosa Securiflustra securifronsSecuriflustra securifronsCarbasea carbasea Carbasea carbasea Flustra foliacea Flustra foliacea Serratiflustra serrulata Serratiflustra serrulata Terminoflustra barleei Terminoflustra barleei Sarsiflustra abyssicola Sarsiflustra abyssicola Rectonychocella solida Rectonychocella solida Microporina articulataMicroporina articulataReussina impressa Reussina impressa Lepralioides nordlandica Lepralioides nordlandica Triticella pedicellata Triticella pedicellata Amathia pustulosa Amathia pustulosa Callopora lineata Callopora lineata Amphiblestrum auritumAmphiblestrum auritumCopidozoum smitti Copidozoum smitti Flustrellaria whiteavesi Flustrellaria whiteavesi Megapora ringens Megapora ringens Doryporella spathulifera Doryporella spathulifera Larnacicus cornigerLarnacicus cornigerCorynoporella tenuis Corynoporella tenuis Uschakovia gorbunovi Uschakovia gorbunovi Bugulopsis peachii Bugulopsis peachii Caberea ellisii Caberea ellisii Gephyrotes nitidopunctata Gephyrotes nitidopunctata Membraniporella nitida Membraniporella nitida Semibugula birulai Semibugula birulai Harmeria scutulataHarmeria scutulataSeptentriopora nigrans Septentriopora nigrans Cauloramphus spiniferum Cauloramphus spiniferum Ramphonotus minax Ramphonotus minax Bicellariella ciliata Bicellariella ciliata Hemicyclopora polita Hemicyclopora polita Escharella labiata Escharella labiata Phylactella pacificaPhylactella pacificaCheilopora sincera Cheilopora sincera Tessaradoma gracileTessaradoma gracileCylindroporella tubulosa Cylindroporella tubulosa Lepraliella contigua Lepraliella contigua Palmiskenea skenei Palmiskenea skenei Hippothoa divaricata Hippothoa divaricata Hippoporella hippopus Hippoporella hippopus Posterula sarsii Posterula sarsii Ragionula rosaceaRagionula rosaceaCelleporella hyalina Celleporella hyalina Dendrobeania murrayana Dendrobeania murrayana Crisularia harmsworthi Crisularia harmsworthi Bugulina tricuspis Bugulina tricuspis Bugula fastigiata Bugula fastigiata Kinetoskias arborescens Kinetoskias arborescens Notoplites jeffreysiiNotoplites jeffreysiiPseudoflustra solida Pseudoflustra solida Umbonula ovicellata Umbonula ovicellata Oshurkovia inarmata Oshurkovia inarmata Arctonula arctica Arctonula arctica Scrupocellaria intermedia Scrupocellaria intermedia Aquiloniella scabraAquiloniella scabraCribrilina annulata Cribrilina annulata Temachia microstoma Temachia microstoma Hincksipora simplex Hincksipora simplex Pachyegis princeps Pachyegis princeps Cystisella saccata beringia Cystisella saccata beringia Schizoporella thompsoni Schizoporella thompsoni Schizomavella (Schizomavella) auriculata Schizomavella (Schizomavella) auriculata Stomachetosella limbata Stomachetosella limbata Microporella ciliata Microporella ciliata Haplopoma impressum Haplopoma impressum Fenestrulina malusii Fenestrulina malusii Reteporella beaniana Reteporella beaniana Phidolopora elongata Phidolopora elongata Escharoides coccinea Escharoides coccinea Celleporina nordenskjoldi Celleporina nordenskjoldi Turbicellepora smitti Turbicellepora smitti Celleporaria nodulosa Celleporaria nodulosa Cellepora pumicosa Cellepora pumicosa Omalosecosa ramulosa Omalosecosa ramulosa Escharina alderi Escharina alderi Stomacrustula sinuosa Stomacrustula sinuosa Rhamphostomella scabra Rhamphostomella scabra Hippoporina harmsworthi Hippoporina harmsworthi Hippomonavella borealis Hippomonavella borealis Tegella armiferaTegella armiferaLeieschara orientalis Leieschara orientalis Electra pilosa var. dentataElectra pilosa var. dentataEinhornia arcticaEinhornia arcticaFlustrellidra corniculata Flustrellidra corniculata Arachnidium hippothooides Arachnidium hippothooides Alcyonidium gelatinosum anderssoni Alcyonidium gelatinosum anderssoni Eucratea loricata arctica Eucratea loricata arctica Smittina minuscula Smittina minuscula Porella peristomata Porella peristomata Smittoidea glaciata Smittoidea glaciata Parasmittina jeffreysi Parasmittina jeffreysi Flustra nordenskjoldi Flustra nordenskjoldi Terminoflustra membranaceotruncata Terminoflustra membranaceotruncata Amathia imbricata Amathia imbricata Tricellaria gracilis Tricellaria gracilis Callopora craticula Callopora craticula Bugulopsis peachii beringia Bugulopsis peachii beringia Cauloramphus intermedius Cauloramphus intermedius Ramphonotus gorbunovi Ramphonotus gorbunovi Bicellarina alderi Bicellarina alderi Amphiblestrum flemingii Amphiblestrum flemingii Hemicyclopora emucronata Hemicyclopora emucronata Cheilopora praelucida Cheilopora praelucida Palmiskenea skenei var. tridens Palmiskenea skenei var. tridens Hippothoa divaricata arctica Hippothoa divaricata arctica Hippoporella fastigatoavicularis Hippoporella fastigatoavicularis Dendrobeania pseudomurrayana Dendrobeania pseudomurrayana Bugula tschukotkensis Bugula tschukotkensis Bugulina calathus Bugulina calathus Kinetoskias smitti Kinetoskias smitti Notoplites sibiricus Notoplites sibiricus Pseudoflustra hincksi Pseudoflustra hincksi Umbonula patens Umbonula patens Aquiloniella paenulata Aquiloniella paenulata Scrupocellaria minor Scrupocellaria minor Cribrilina spitzbergensis Cribrilina spitzbergensis Escharella immersa Escharella immersa Hippoporina cancellata Hippoporina cancellata Pachyegis groenlandica Pachyegis groenlandica Cystisella saccataCystisella saccataSchizoporella unicornisSchizoporella unicornisSchizomavella (Schizomavella) lineata Schizomavella (Schizomavella) lineata Stomachetosella magniporata Stomachetosella magniporata Microporella arctica Microporella arctica Reteporella watersi Reteporella watersi Escharoides bidenkapi Escharoides bidenkapi Celleporina costazii Celleporina costazii Turbicellepora canaliculata Turbicellepora canaliculata Stomacrustula cruenta Stomacrustula cruenta Rhamphostomella costata Rhamphostomella costata Hippoporina reticulatopunctata Hippoporina reticulatopunctata Tegella armiferoidesTegella armiferoidesLeieschara subgracilisLeieschara subgracilisAlcyonidium radicellatumAlcyonidium radicellatumFlustrellidra cervicornis Flustrellidra cervicornis Arachnidium simplex Arachnidium simplex Eucratea loricata cornuta Eucratea loricata cornuta Smittina rigida Smittina rigida Porella concinna Porella concinna Amathia arctica Amathia arctica Tricellaria gracilis inermis Tricellaria gracilis inermis Callopora sedovi Callopora sedovi Cauloramphus cymbaeformis Cauloramphus cymbaeformis Ramphonotus septentrionalis Ramphonotus septentrionalis Amphiblestrum trifolium Amphiblestrum trifolium Cheilopora inermis Cheilopora inermis Palmiskenea skenei var. bicornisPalmiskenea skenei var. bicornisHippothoa expansa Hippothoa expansa Dendrobeania tenuis Dendrobeania tenuis Bugulina avicularia Bugulina avicularia Kinetoskias mitsukurii Kinetoskias mitsukurii Notoplites smittii Notoplites smittii Pseudoflustra anderssoni Pseudoflustra anderssoni Aquiloniella scabra var. paenulata forma orientalisAquiloniella scabra var. paenulata forma orientalisCribrilina punctata Cribrilina punctata Escharella variolosa Escharella variolosa Hincksipora stenostoma Hincksipora stenostoma Schizoporella biaperta Schizoporella biaperta Schizomavella porifera Schizomavella porifera Schizobrachiella stylifera Schizobrachiella stylifera Reteporella cellulosaReteporella cellulosaEscharoides jacksonii Escharoides jacksonii Celleporina surcularis Celleporina surcularis Turbicellepora avicularis Turbicellepora avicularis Rhamphostomella cristata Rhamphostomella cristata Smittoidea propinquaSmittoidea propinquaAlcyonidium (Paralcyonidium) vermiculare Alcyonidium (Paralcyonidium) vermiculare Flustrellidra gigantea Flustrellidra gigantea Eucratea loricata macrostoma Eucratea loricata macrostoma Smittina mucronata Smittina mucronata Porella belli Porella belli Amathia gracilis Amathia gracilis Callopora lata Callopora lata Tegella kildinensis Tegella kildinensis Amphiblestrum quadratum Amphiblestrum quadratum Dendrobeania fessa Dendrobeania fessa Kinetoskias beringi Kinetoskias beringi Notoplites normani Notoplites normani Pseudoflustra sinuosa Pseudoflustra sinuosa Tricellaria arctica Tricellaria arctica Cribrilina cryptooecium Cribrilina cryptooecium Escharella ventricosa var. peristomata Escharella ventricosa var. peristomata Hincksipora spinuliferaHincksipora spinuliferaPalmiskenea plana Palmiskenea plana Schizoporella crustacea Schizoporella crustacea Schizobrachiella stylifera perforata Schizobrachiella stylifera perforata Escharoides jacksoni rostrataEscharoides jacksoni rostrataCelleporina ventricosa Celleporina ventricosa Rhamphostomella ovata Rhamphostomella ovata Alcyonidium hirsutum Alcyonidium hirsutum Flustrellidra vegae Flustrellidra vegae Smittina pseudoacutirostris Smittina pseudoacutirostris Amathia composita Amathia composita Callopora obesaCallopora obesaTegella spitzbergensis Tegella spitzbergensis Dendrobeania fruticosa Dendrobeania fruticosa Pseudoflustra birulai Pseudoflustra birulai Cribrilina watersi Cribrilina watersi Escharella ventricosa Escharella ventricosa Porella fragilis Porella fragilis Schizoporella costata Schizoporella costata Escharoides monstruosa Escharoides monstruosa Stomachetosella producta Stomachetosella producta Rhamphostomella hincksi Rhamphostomella hincksi Alcyonidioides mytili Alcyonidioides mytili Smittina muliebris Smittina muliebris Callopora derjugini Callopora derjugini Tegella arctica Tegella arctica Dendrobeania quadridentata Dendrobeania quadridentata Escharella dijmphnae Escharella dijmphnae Porella struma Porella struma Schizoporella bispinosa Schizoporella bispinosa Cribrilina spiculifera Cribrilina spiculifera Stomachetosella collaris Stomachetosella collaris Rhamphostomella radiatula Rhamphostomella radiatula Alcyonidium irregulare Alcyonidium irregulare Smittina smitti Smittina smitti Tegella retroversa Tegella retroversa Dendrobeania frigidaDendrobeania frigidaEscharella indivisa Escharella indivisa Porella aperta Porella aperta Schizoporella elmwoodiae Schizoporella elmwoodiae Rhamphostomella spinigera Rhamphostomella spinigera Alcyonidium mamillatum Alcyonidium mamillatum Smittina tuberosa Smittina tuberosa Tegella anguloavicularis Tegella anguloavicularis Dendrobeania levinseni Dendrobeania levinseni Escharella laqueata Escharella laqueata Porella acutirostris Porella acutirostris Schizoporella elmwoodiae mamillata Schizoporella elmwoodiae mamillata Rhamphostomella plicata Rhamphostomella plicata Alcyonidium mamillatum erectum Alcyonidium mamillatum erectum Smittina beringia Smittina beringia Tegella inermis Kluge, 1952Tegella inermis Kluge, 1952Dendrobeania pseudolevinseni Dendrobeania pseudolevinseni Escharella octodentata Escharella octodentata Porella tumida Porella tumida Schizoporella pachystega Schizoporella pachystega Rhamphostomella bilaminata Rhamphostomella bilaminata Alcyonidium proboscideum Alcyonidium proboscideum Smittina thompsoni Smittina thompsoni Tegella amissavicularisTegella amissavicularisDendrobeania flustroides Dendrobeania flustroides Escharella abyssicola Escharella abyssicola Porella minuta Porella minuta Schizoporella incerta Schizoporella incerta Rhamphostomella sibirica Rhamphostomella sibirica Alcyonidium albidumAlcyonidium albidumTegella norvegica Tegella norvegica Dendrobeania murmanica Dendrobeania murmanica Escharella macrodonta Escharella macrodonta Porella smitti Porella smitti Schizoporella hexagona Schizoporella hexagona Rhamphostomella ussowi Rhamphostomella ussowi Alcyonidium disciforme Alcyonidium disciforme Dendrobeania decorata Dendrobeania decorata Escharella latodonta Escharella latodonta Porella proboscidea Porella proboscidea Schizoporella smitti Schizoporella smitti Alcyonidium parasiticum Alcyonidium parasiticum Porella laevis Porella laevis Alcyonidium gelatinosum diaphanum Alcyonidium gelatinosum diaphanum Schizoporella obesa Schizoporella obesa Alcyonidium pachydermatum Alcyonidium pachydermatum Schizomavella ortmanniSchizomavella ortmanni

Class Stenolaemata

Key features are not set

Hornera lichenoides Hornera lichenoides Stomatopora granulataStomatopora granulataProboscina gracilisProboscina gracilisAnnectocyma majorAnnectocyma majorOncousoecia diastoporidesOncousoecia diastoporidesBathysoecia polygonalisBathysoecia polygonalisTubulipora flabellarisTubulipora flabellarisPenciletta penicillataPenciletta penicillataExidmonea atlantica Exidmonea atlantica Idmonea fenestrataIdmonea fenestrataIdmoneoides arctoflabellarisIdmoneoides arctoflabellarisEntalophora clavata Entalophora clavata Entalophoroecia harmeri Entalophoroecia harmeri Diplosolen obelia Diplosolen obelia Berenicea arctica Berenicea arctica Plagioecia patinaPlagioecia patinaMesenteripora meandrina Mesenteripora meandrina Domopora stellata Domopora stellata Infundibulipora lucernaria Infundibulipora lucernaria Fasciculiporoides americana Fasciculiporoides americana Filicrisia geniculataFilicrisia geniculataCrisidia cornutaCrisidia cornutaBicrisia abyssicola Bicrisia abyssicola Crisiella diversaCrisiella diversaCrisia aculeataCrisia aculeataStigmatoechos violacea Stigmatoechos violacea Patinella verrucaria Patinella verrucaria Disporella hispidaDisporella hispidaLichenopora crassiuscula Lichenopora crassiuscula Heteropora pelliculata Heteropora pelliculata Borgella pustulosa Borgella pustulosa Neofungella dalli Neofungella dalli Proboscina fecundaProboscina fecundaOncousoecia canadensisOncousoecia canadensisTubulipora marisalbiTubulipora marisalbiExidmonea atlantica var. gracilimaExidmonea atlantica var. gracilimaIdmonea tumidaIdmonea tumidaDiplosolen obelia var. arcticaDiplosolen obelia var. arcticaBerenicea oblongaBerenicea oblongaInfundibulipora lucernaria var. proliferaInfundibulipora lucernaria var. proliferaFilicrisia smitti Filicrisia smitti Crisidia orientalis Crisidia orientalis Crisiella productaCrisiella productaCrisia aculeata bathyalisCrisia aculeata bathyalisStigmatoechos arctica Stigmatoechos arctica Patinella multicentraPatinella multicentraProboscina incrassataProboscina incrassataTubulipora eminensTubulipora eminensOncousoecia dilatansOncousoecia dilatansIdmonea bidenkapiIdmonea bidenkapiDiplosolen intricarius Diplosolen intricarius Crisiella complecta Crisiella complecta Crisia eburnea Crisia eburnea Stigmatoechos violacea v. proboscinaStigmatoechos violacea v. proboscinaPatinella sibirica Patinella sibirica Tubulipora fructuosaTubulipora fructuosaCrisia eburneodenticulata Crisia eburneodenticulata Patinella radiata Patinella radiata Tubulipora smittiTubulipora smittiCrisia constans Crisia constans Tubulipora uniformisTubulipora uniformisCrisia denticulataCrisia denticulataTubulipora apertaTubulipora apertaCrisia denticulata borgi Crisia denticulata borgi Tubulipora minutaTubulipora minutaCrisia denticulata var. arctica Crisia denticulata var. arctica Tubulipora liliacea Tubulipora liliacea Tubulipora borgiTubulipora borgiTubulipora murmanicaTubulipora murmanicaTubulipora ventricosaTubulipora ventricosaTubulipora solutaTubulipora solutaTubulipora nordgaardi Tubulipora nordgaardi Tubulipora fruticosa Tubulipora fruticosa

Glossary

  • Adventitious avicularium. One occupying some position on the external wall of an autozooid (if. vicarious).
  • Ancestrula. First-formed zooid of a colony, derived by metamorphosis of a free-swimming larva.
  • Ascus. Sac-like hydrostatic organ in ascophoran Cheilostomata (syn. compensation sac, compensatrix).
  • Autozooid. The feeding zooid of a bryozoan colony.
  • Avicularium. Specialized cheilostome zooid with reduced polypide but strong muscles operating a mandiblelike operculum (see adventitious, interzooidal, vicarious).
  • Basal. Under or reverse side of an encrusting or erect zooid or colony. Morphologically dorsal (if. proximal).
  • Brown body. Colored spheroid seen in zooids, resulting from aggregation of non-histolyzable residue of a degenerated polypide.
  • Cauda. Thread-like proximal portion of a club-shaped autozooid.
  • Coelomopore. Pore in the body wall connecting the coelom with the exterior; specifically, the pore at the base of the tentacles through which eggs are shed (syn. supraneural pore).
  • Condyles. A pair of oppositely placed processes on which the operculum pivots in the orifice of ascophoran cheilostomes.
  • Cystid. Cellular plus skeletal layers of the zooid wall (if. polypide, zooecium).
  • Distal. Pertaining to the side away from the ancestrula or origin of growth.
  • Frontal. Pertaining to the exposed or orifice-bearing side of a zooid or colony. Morphologically ventral.
  • Frontal wall. A calcareous frontal body wall (covering the ascus in some ascophoran cheilostomes).
  • Funiculus. Mesenchymatous strands connecting the polypide with the zooidal wall (actually with the communication pores in the wall, in Cheilostomata and Ctenostomata).
  • Gonozooid. Zooid modified as a brood chamber.
  • Heterozooid. A specialised zooid, not an autozooid.
  • Interzooidal avicularium. One which extends to the basal surface of the colony, but is wedged in between autozooids rather than replacing one of them in a normal series.
  • Kenozooid. Heterozooid without a polypide, and usually without either orifice or muscles.
  • Lophophore. The ring of hollow, ciliated tentacles surrounding the mouth of the zooid.
  • Lyrula. Median tooth, often anvil-shaped, on the proximal side of the orifice in some Cheilostomata.
  • Mandible. Articulated part of an avicularium, moved by muscles, and homologous with the operculum of an autozooid.
  • Ooecium (pI. ooecia). Ovicell or brood chamber in Cheilostomata.
  • Ooeciostome. In Cyclostomata, the opening of the gonozooid, through which larvae are released. Typically different in shape from the autozooid aperture, and usually characteristic for each species.
  • Operculum. A generally uncalcified lamina, hinged or pivoting on condyles, which closes the zooidal orifice in
  • Cheilostomata.
  • Opesia. In anascan Cheilostomata, the opening below the frontal membrane which remains after formation of the cryptocyst.
  • Orifice. Not the mouth, but the opening in the zooid body wall through which the lophophore is extended. In cheilostomes this may be surrounded by a peristome, the opening at the upper end of which is then called the secondary orifice.
  • Ovicell. A globular brood chamber in Cheilostomata (syn. ooecium).
  • Peristome. In Cheilostomata, a rim, often elevated or tubular, surrounding the primary orifice. In Ctenostomata used loosely to describe the cylindrical protuberance of the body wall on which the primary orifice is situated. In Cyclostomata, the distal tubular portion of the autozooid.
  • Polypide. The organs and tissues of a zooid which undergo periodic replacement; viz., tentacles, tentacle sheath, gut, musculature and nerve ganglion.
  • Proximal. Pertaining to the side toward the ancestrula or origin of growth.
  • Pseudopore. Tissue filled lacuna in the calcification of the outer zooid wall in many Bryozoa.
  • Quincuncial. Arrangement of five objects such that four are placed at the corners of a rectangle with the other in the center.
  • Rostrum. (1) spike-like prolongation of an avicularium; (2) distal part of avicularium occupied by mandible.
  • Sinus. Slit at proximal edge of orifice in some ascophoran Cheilostomata.
  • Transverse parietal muscles. Short muscles inserted on the body wall of ctenostomes, the frontal membrane of anascans or the ascus of ascophorans, which contract to raise internal hydrostatic pressure.
  • Vibraculum. In Cheilostomata, a heterozooid with an operculum modified as a long seta slung between condyles.
  • Vicarious avicularium. One that replaces an autozooid in a senes.
  • Zooid. Single unit of a bryozoan colony. Various types are distinguished by prefixes.
1. PhD Zakharov Denis V.

1. PhD Zakharov Denis V.

The project leader

Academic degree: PhD
Occupation: senior scientist
Workplace: Polar Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (PINRO)
Taxonomic group: Gastropoda
E-mail: zakharden@yandex.ru

5. PhD Strelkova (Anisimova) Natalya A.

5. PhD Strelkova (Anisimova) Natalya A.

Academic degree: PhD
Workplace: Polar Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (PINRO)
Occupation: Senior scientist, deputy head of laboratory
Taxonomic group: Echinodermata
E-mail: natalya.anisimova@mail.ru

  1. http://www.marinespecies.org/index.php;
  2. Kluge G.A. (1962) Bryozoa of the Northen seas of the USSR (In Russian);